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Discussion on the development of Global Electric Motorcars energy storage in China
- Aug 29, 2018 -

China's electric vehicle energy storage potential is huge

Unlike traditional fuel vehicles, electric vehicles are naturally connected to the power grid. The vehicles are recharged through the power grid to supplement energy, and are driven by power batteries.

With the popularization of electric vehicles, a large number of electric vehicles can become considerable power system energy storage facilities, provide auxiliary services for power system and improve the scale of renewable energy consumption.

As early as the 1990s, the concept of energy storage for electric vehicles was proposed by foreign scholars. The technical feasibility, economic efficiency, operation mode and standard specification were gradually demonstrated in subsequent studies. However, due to the limited number of electric vehicles, its practical application was still limited to technology and operation demonstration.

China's electric vehicle market has exploded in recent years, becoming the world's largest electric vehicle market for three consecutive years.

China will have five million electric vehicles by 2020.

At the same time, the cost of power battery, the core energy storage component of electric vehicles, has been rapidly reduced. The cost has been reduced by more than 60% in the past five years. It is expected that the cost of battery pack will be reduced to 1 yuan/watt-hour by 2020.

Rapid growth in the number of vehicles and falling costs mean that the time for the promotion of electric vehicle energy storage is approaching.

In view of the development trend of China's electric vehicle industry, it is assumed that 100 million electric vehicles will be promoted nationwide in 2030, so the theoretical energy storage capacity of electric vehicles can reach more than 5,000 gw.

With the further maturity of power battery technology, electric vehicles will be fully capable of replacing fuel-based internal combustion vehicles in the passenger vehicle sector in the future.

Such large-scale energy storage resources can theoretically fully solve the intraday peak demand of the power system under the high proportion of renewable energy, and greatly alleviate the problem of abandoning wind and light which has been troubling the industry for a long time.

On the other hand, as the power supply structure is cleaned up, the whole-life emission of electric vehicles will be greatly reduced, so as to eliminate the controversy on electric vehicle environment that still exists to some extent.

Consumer will, cost and technological route are the problems to be solved in energy storage development

Although electric vehicle energy storage has great potential for development, it also has obstacles in terms of consumer willingness, cost and technological route.

Electric vehicles mainly serve for transportation. If the energy storage application of electric vehicles affects the normal use of vehicles, this mode is obviously difficult to be accepted by consumers.

Second, at present, the battery life of power battery is still limited, while the energy storage of electric vehicle inevitably sacrifices part of the battery cycle life. If such sacrifice affects the travel demand of vehicles, electric vehicle energy storage is bound to be difficult to implement.

Thirdly, the technological route of electric vehicle power battery will finally affect the energy storage effect of electric vehicle.

Current increase energy density is one of the primary goals of power battery research and development, but due to the technological progress of battery materials tend to have "wooden barrel effect", namely improve one is bound to sacrifice other aspects of performance, this is bound to affect other battery parameters such as cycle life progress speed, affect the feasibility of the electric vehicle energy storage.

In recent years, the rapid development of the power battery of ternary anode material proves that the technology route of power battery and energy storage battery has a tendency of differentiation.

Business model, price mechanism should be explored first

In order to solve the above problems, the business model, price mechanism and technology research and development should be explored in advance.

Operating fleets are among the first beneficiaries of electric vehicle energy storage.

The relatively regular travel of buses, logistics and other special fleets is capable of providing stable energy storage service of power system on the premise of hardly affecting the operation of vehicles.

In the future, with the gradual maturity of the vehicle sharing model, the Shared vehicle operator can also step in the electric vehicle energy storage service, and then leverage the private electric vehicle energy storage market.

Although the power battery cannot support large-scale vehicle-to-electric interconnection (V2G) in the short term, it can realize the energy storage value of the power system economically through orderly charging, battery replacement and decommissioned battery energy storage.

Smart charging technology, charging and replacing infrastructure and battery recycling standards need to be laid out as soon as possible.

The improved power market mechanism and electricity pricing policy will also help speed up the commercialization of the V2G model.

In order to realize the full integration of electric vehicle and energy system, the research and development of power battery technology needs to take into account the energy density, cycle life and other indicators.

This will not only help electric vehicles realize the value of energy storage, but also help electric vehicles better adapt to the market demand of significantly increased vehicle operation intensity in the unmanned operating environment.